The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as well as state procedural rules, permit parties to a lawsuit to conduct discovery, in search of information and documents that may be relevant to the litigation. Parties can issue requests for documents, information (called interrogatories), and admissions of fact to other parties to the lawsuit; parties may use subpoenas to issue requests to third parties. When discovery issued in a U.S. civil proceeding seeks personal information regarding Europeans, or personal information that is held by an entity that is established in Europe, three main privacy questions arise.
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